Grundläggande principer för tasawwuf
Av Sheikh Muhammad al Ya`qubi al Hasani
إن مبادي كل فن عشره الحد و الموضوع ثم الثمره
و فضله ونسبة و الواضع و الاسم الاستمداد حكم الشارع
مسائل و البعض بالبعض اكتفى و من درى الجميع حاز الشرفا
1. The definition – الحد :
Hundreds of definitions of Tasawwuf have been drawn. The great scholar sidi Ahmed Zarouq says: ”Tasawwuf has more than two thousand explanatory definitions; all ultimately refer to the following:
True devotion to Allah from where He likes by the means He likes
صدق التوجه إلى الله من حيث يرضاه بما يرضاه
Some of the common definitions are:
Acting upon knowledge
Acquiring the good characters and getting rid of the bad.
2. The subject-الموضوع:
The Divine Essence
As how Allah can be known. Another opinion says that the subject of this discipline is hearts and souls; because it works on their purification and cultivation. Both opinions are correct as the latter looks at the goal and the former looks at the means; as it has been correctly said, ”He who knows himself will know his Lord”.
3. The fruit- الثمرة:
The fruit or the benefit of this discipline is the purification of the heart and knowing the Master of the worlds.
4. The merit- فضله :
Tasawwuf is a noble discipline of high merit. Its nobility stems from from its subject. Al- Ihsan is one of the three levels of this deen and the highest.
5. The relation of this discipline to the other sciences- نسبته إلى غيره من العلوم:
Tasawwuf is the base of the Sharia; without it all acts of worship would be imperfect. It is the core of the Quran and the Sunnah and the tissue of muslims spiritual life. Imam Malik says:
من تصوف و لم يتفقه فقد تزندق و من تفقه و لم يتصوف فقد تفسق و من جمع بينهما فقد تحقق
”Whoever acquires tasawwuf without fiqh is a heretic and whoever studies fiqh without tasawwuf is unrighteous and who combines both has the reality”
6. The pioneer- الواضع :
The word al-wadi means the one that sets forth this branch of knowledge. It is of course the Prophet (May Allah bless him and grant him peace). Many ahadith highlight this fact, most famous of which is hadith Jibril (May Allah bless him). The first one who made this knowledge known is Sayyiduna Ali (May Allah be pleased with him) and then his son Sayyiduna al-Hasan (May Allah be pleased with him) and al-Hasan al-Basriy (May Allah have mercy on him).
7. The name- الاسم:
The name of this science is tasawwuf
The word is derrived from souf: wool; or from safa: purity; or from suffa: the special place of a group of the sahaba in the Holy Sanctuary of the Prophet (May Allah bless him and grant him peace). The discipline has been known by this name since the second century of hijra, i.e. the time of the salaf (May Allah have mercy on them). It has been frequently called ilm as-Sulouk, ilm al-Ihsan, ilm at-Tarbiyah or ilm at-Tazkiyah.
8. The sources- الاستمداد :
Tasawwuf relies on al-Quran and as-Sunnah as the sources and proofs of its material. The sayings of the great scholars are a rich treasure for the seekers and the masters alike.
9. The legal ruling- حكم الشارع :
The legal ruling of studying tasawwuf is fard i.e. obligatory. Since all human beings are susceptable to sins save for the Prophets. Imam Abul Hasan ash-Shadiliy says:
من لم يتغلغل في علمنا هذا مات مصرا على الكبائر و هو لا يشعر
”Who does not deeply study this discipline will die persisting on major sins without being aware of it”.
10. The issues discussed- مسائله:
Tasawwuf tackles some of the cardinal elements of the deen such as ikhlas: sincerity; sidq: truthfulness; wara: religious cautioness; tawakkul: reliance; zuhd: asceticism; mahabba: love; and similarly their opposites, wich are called the diseases of the hearts such as insincerity; hypocrisy; arrogance; greed. It also tackles some of the subtlest subjects such as the passing of thoughts; the states of the heart; inspiration. One of its most important subjects is dhikr, the remebrance of Allah and its virtues; another is the sheikh and his qualifications, the disciple murid and his adab.
Basic works on tasawwuf:
The Beauty of the Righteous by al-Hafiz Abu Nuaym al-Asfahani
The Revival of the Sciences of the Deen- Ihya Ulumid-Deen by al-Imam al-Ghazali
Al-Risalah of Imam Abul Qasim al-Qushayriy
The Aphorisms – al-Hikam of Imam Ibn Atta Allah
Revelation of the Unseen by Imam Abdul Qadir al-Jaylaniy